To begin with, detailed properties of your data professionals because of the sex was in fact presented while the rates along with their particular 95% confidence interval (CI)

Sociodemographic services integrated racial self-group (light or non-light age.g. black colored, brownish, yellow, otherwise indigenous), place of quarters (urban or rural), education (0–4, 5–8, 9–eleven, otherwise ? twelve age), and you will month-to-month domestic money for each and every capita in tertiles (reasonable, center, or high). The fresh urban–outlying category are according to research by the steps employed by the fresh Brazilian Institute from Topography and Statistics (when you look at the Portuguese, IBGE) in 2010 people census off administrative limits lay out by local laws and regulations. Inside each municipality’s boundaries, these types of local statutes expose a fictional line called “metropolitan fringe”. The latest census tracts receive inside the “urban perimeter” was called urban, while the residual section is appointed rural. The other advice was received compliment of a facial-to-face interviews in the participant’s household.

Anthropometric variables

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Statistical investigation

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The characteristics of investigation participants by the sex is seen in the Dining table step one. Both in sexes, very members had been non-light, lived in the latest city, got 0–4 several years of education, and you will shown increased sides circumference. In regards to the Bmi, overweight is the most frequent classification for males (42.9%), when you are over weight and you can carrying excess fat got nearly comparable frequencies for females (thirty six.9% and thirty five.4%, respectively). From persistent sickness, forty-two.1% of professionals advertised with a medical prognosis of arterial blood pressure, 17.4% out of all web sitesine git forms of diabetes mellitus, eleven.5% off weakening of bones, seven.4% off cardiovascular system illness (angina, myocardial infarction, and you will center inability), and you can 5.7% regarding respiratory sickness (asthma and you may persistent obstructive pulmonary state).